Sunday, November 20, 2016

Famous Paintings, Section 2

The WhiteRock  Family Digital  Art Gallery is presented in sections  containing eight images each of famous  paintings by
great artists.  The works  are arranged  according  to what are  generally  accepted and  what the author  thinks are the
best or the most important by the artists who are themselves presented according to the significance of their respective
contributions to art.

Some factors have to be  considered in order to understand  the criteria of the  selection of the works that are included
in this gallery. Examples of these are the influence of Western philosophy in the development of aesthetic  taste and the
adoption of   Western  values and  culture  in  the selection  of artistic  subjects,  the inspiration  that religious  faith has
provided in the creation of great art and the wealth and power of the Catholic Church to commission the services of the
greatest artists of the Renaissance and beyond.

On the other hand,  the human  form  has always  been a subject of  endless intellectual  speculation and this includes the
creation of tasteful art. Along this line, different cultures also have different standards of defining what is "tasteful."
These factors help explain the exclusion of certain aesthetic values and cultures in this selection as well as its liberality
over the selection of certain subjects that some individuals may otherwise find inappropriate.

Art may be objective, but the process of selecting cannot be but subjective. Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder.     

Welcome to The WhiteRock Family Digital Art Gallery.

This section includes works by the following painters:

Jackson Pollock
Jan van Eyck
Wassily Kandinsky
Albrecht Dürer
Francisco Goya
Pablo Picasso
Joseph Mallord William Turner

Click on the image to view on black background; the title of the work to go to the source.
The name of the artist and location of work link to sources of more information.


Enamel paint on canvass (1950)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Autumn Rhythm  (Number 30)  is an abstract expressionist drip painting by American artist Jackson Pollock.  It consists of
muted colors  such as black,  white and  brown paint,  aggressively  splattered  and  interlaced throughout  an unpainted
canvas  background.   Pollock  originally  titled   the  painting   Number 30,   believing  that  titles affected  how  viewers
perceived  paintings, but it was later retitled Autumn Rhythm.

Hans Namuth's photographs of Pollock,  which culminated in his 1980 book  Pollock Painting,  included images of Pollock
painting Autumn Rhythm,  which revealed that  the painting  was largely painted  right-to-left.  Researchers looking at
the  underlying  fractal   geometry of   Pollock's  work  have  estimated  the  fractal  dimension  of  the drip  patterns  in
Autumn Rhythm at 1.67. wikipedia

Pollock  had  created his first  "drip"  painting  in 1947,  the product  of a  radical  new  approach to  paint  handling.  With
Autumn Rhythm,  made in  1950,  the artist is at the  height  of his powers.  In this   nonrepresentational  picture,  thinned
paint was  applied to unprimed,  unstretched canvas  that lay flat  on the floor  rather than  propped on an easel.  Poured,
dripped, dribbled,  scumbled, flicked,  and splattered,  the pigment was applied in the  most unorthodox means.  The artist
also  used sticks,  trowels,  anything  but  the  traditional  painter's  implements - to  build  up dense,  lyrical  compositions
comprised  of  intricate  skeins  of  line.   There's  no  central  point  of  focus,   no  hierarchy  of elements  in  this  all-over
composition in which every bit of the surface is equally significant.  The artist worked  with the canvas flat on the floor,
constantly moving all around it while applying the paint and working from all four sides.

Size is significant:  Autumn Rhythm  is 207 inches  wide. It assumes the  scale of an  environment,  enveloping  both for the
artist  as he  created it and  for viewers  who  confront it.  The  work  is a  record  of its  process  of coming-into-being.  Its
dynamic  visual  rhythms  and  sensations-buoyant,  heavy,  graceful,  arching,  swirling,  pooling lines of  color  are direct
evidence  of  the very  physical  choreography  of  applying  the  paint with  the  artist's  new  methods.  Spontaneity  was  a
critical  element.  But  lack  of  premeditation  should  not  be  confused  with  ceding  control;   as Pollock  stated, "I  can
control the flow of paint: there is no accident."

For Pollock,  as for the Abstract  Expressionists in general,  art had to convey  significant or revelatory content.  He had
arrived  at   abstraction   having   studied   with   Thomas  Hart  Benton,   worked   briefly   with  the   Mexican   muralists,
confronted  the  methods  and  philosophy  of the  Surrealists,  and immersed  himself in a  study of  myth,  archetype,  and
ancient and "primitive" art.  And the divide between abstraction  and figuration was  more nuanced - there was a back-and-
forth at  various  moments  in his career.  Toward  the  end of his life  (he died  in a car  accident  in 1956),  he said, "I'm very
representational some of the time, and a little all of the time. But when you're working out of your unconscious, figures
are bound to emerge. … Painting is a state of being. … Painting is self-discovery. Every good artist paints what he is."
Heilbrunn, Timeline of Art History

The Artist Project: Robert Longo from The Met on YouTube.

Oil on oak panel (1434)
National Gallery, London


The Arnolfini  Portrait  (or The Arnolfini  Wedding,  or other titles)  forms a full-length  double portrait, believed to
depict the Italian merchant  Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini  and his wife,  presumably in their home in the Flemish city of
Bruges.  It is considered  one of the most  original  and complex  paintings in Western art,  because of its beauty,  complex
iconography, geometric orthogonal perspective, and expansion of the picture space with the use of a mirror.

According to Ernst Gombrich "in its own way it was as new and revolutionary as Masaccio's work in Italy. A simple corner
of the real world had suddenly  been fixed on to a panel as if by magic.  For the first time in history the artist became the
perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term".  The portrait has been considered by Erwin Panofsky and some other
art historians  as a unique  form of marriage  contract,  recorded as a painting.  The couple  are shown in an  upstairs room
with a chest  and a bed in it  during early  summer as  indicated by the  fruit on the  cherry tree  outside the window.  The
room  probably  functioned  as a reception  room,  as it was  the fashion in  France and  Burgundy  where  beds in  reception
rooms were used as seating.

The two  figures are  very richly  dressed;  despite the  season  both  their  outer  garments,  his tabard  and her  dress, are
trimmed and fully  lined with fur.  The furs may be the especially  expensive  sable for him and ermine or miniver for her.
He wears a hat of  plaited straw  dyed black,  as often  worn  in the summer  at the time.  Her dress  has elaborate  dagging
(cloth folded and sewn together, then cut and frayed decoratively) on the sleeves, and a long train. Her blue underdress
is also trimmed with white fur.

The  interior  of  the  room  has  other  signs  of  wealth;   the  brass   chandelier  is large  and elaborate  by  contemporary
standards,  and would  have  been very expensive.  The  convex  mirror at  the back,  in a wooden frame  with  scenes  of  The
Passion  painted  behind glass,  is shown  larger  than  such mirrors  could actually  be made  at this date.  Further  signs of
luxury are  the elaborate  bed-hangings  and the  carvings  on  the  chair  and bench  against the  back wall,  also  the small
Oriental carpet  on the floor by the bed;  many owners of such  expensive objects  placed them on tables, as they still do in
the Netherlands. The dog is an early form of the breed now known as the Brussels griffon.

It is thought that the couple is already married because of the woman's headdress.  A non-married woman would have her
hair down,  according to Margaret Carroll.  The placement of the two figures suggests  conventional 15th century views
of marriage  and gender  roles  –  the  woman  stands  near  the  bed and  well  into  the room,  symbolic  of her  role as the
caretaker of the house, whereas Giovanni stands near the open window, symbolic of his role in the outside world.

Arnolfini  looks  directly  out at  the viewer,  his  wife  gazes  obediently  at  her  husband.  His  hand is  vertically  raised,
representing his commanding position of authority,  whilst she has her hand in a lower, horizontal,  more submissive pose.
However,  her gaze  at her  husband  can also  show  her  equality  to him  because  she is  not looking  down  at the floor as
lower  class  women  would.  They  are  part  of  the  Burgundian  court  life  and  in  that  system  she is his  equal,  not  his
subordinate. Although many  viewers assume the wife to be pregnant,  this is not believed to be so. Art historians point to
numerous  paintings  of female  virgin  saints  similarly  dressed,  and believe  that this look was fashionable  for  women's
dresses at the time.  Fashion would have been important to Arnolfini,  especially since he was a cloth merchant. There is a
carved  figure  as a  finial  on  the  bedpost,  probably  of  Saint  Margaret,  patron  saint  of  pregnancy and  childbirth,  or
possibly representing Saint Martha, the patroness of housewives. wikipedia

Van Eyck, Arnolfini Portrait on Khan Academy

Composition VIII
Oil on canvass (1923)


Composition VIII  is the eighth in a series of paintings,  begun in 1911,  in which Kandinsky  expresses what he is trying to
achieve.  The artist wanted to explore the  medium of painting rather than be concerned with subject matter.  His goal
was to paint what music sounds like. Totally History

Wassily Kandinsky considered Composition VIII to be the acme of his early Bauhaus period. 

No formal element  can morphologically  be related to any  figurative prototype.  The geometric vocabulary  seems to
consist of comparatively few components like circles,  semicircles, angles, rectangles, and lines.  Yet even if one begins
to try to  describe  the individual  appearance of the  various circle forms,  neither pinpoint,  ball, disk,  globe circular
object, or orb serves to determine accurately their character. 

There appears to be no logic in the imagery;  the components do not  "respond"  to each other; no organic  continuity is
evident  and  no  psychological  associations  are  evoked.  Comparable  to  the  sublime  humour  of a  divertimento,  the
elements -   although they seem to be strictly geometric - actually deviate from their mathematically defined shapes. 

Closer  study  not  only  reveals a  multitude  of different  shades  of  colour  but  it  also  becomes  clear  that  no one
colour is identical  with any  other in the painting.  The colours are not  "applied"  to any object; they  have no brio, or
pastose  quality,  but are phenomena  in their own  right,  as are the  geometric  forms.  Because  of the  impossibility of
giving a lucid  description of  Composition VIII,  the attractive  temptation  is to bypass  the problem by  comparing the
elements in the painting with those in atomic physics which, of course, are also not part of the objective world. And it
is most  revealing,  especially  because  of the  indefinable  poetic  quality  of the  painting,  to examine  the response of
Niels  Bohr  to the problem of  finding a solution  to the  dilemma:  "We must  keep in mind  that language  can only be
used as it is used in poetry where it is not its purpose to precisely describe given facts but rather to create images and
inspire thoughts in the mind of the listener."

Composition VIII Interpretation by Marius Schmücher on Vimeo

Praying Hands
Albrecht Dürer
Pen and ink on paper (c. 1508)
Albertina Museum, Vienna


Praying Hands,  also  known as  Study of the  Hands of an  Apostle,  is a sketch  (study)  for an  apostles'  hand  who was
planned to be in the center panel of the triptych for the Heller Altar, which was destroyed by a fire in 1729. On the
same paper  is a sketch  of the  apostle's head,  but the sheet  has been  divided from it.  The image depicts  probably the
master's own hands. wikipedia

Praying Hands  has traveled a long way  from its roots in the  German  Renaissance.  It is the most  enduring  work by
one of the  greatest  draftsmen  in the history  of Western art,  but it has also  taken on a pop-culture life of its own,
all  over  the  world.   It  is  found  on   posters,  dishes,  washcloths,  urns,  aprons,  coffee  mugs,   cellphone  cases  and
pocketknives  -  and tattooed onto Justin Bieber's leg.  Its likeness appears on  Andy Warhol's tombstone.  Of the many
tattoo takes on the image, one of the more exotic is that of pro basketball player Stephen Jackson, of the San Antonio
Spurs, who has on his torso a rendering of Praying Hands - holding a handgun.

"Without a doubt,  it's the most  famous  drawing  in the world,"  says Andrew Robison,  a senior curator of prints and
drawings  at the  Albertina  Museum.  And  one  of the  most  appropriated.  The sketch of  unadorned hands  clasped in
prayer  was  originally  a  study  for  a  painted  altarpiece  commissioned  for  a  church in  Frankfurt.  In the  finished
painting, the hands belonged to an apostle gazing up at the Assumption of the Virgin Mary into heaven.

Though  the  altarpiece  was  destroyed  in  a  1729  fire,  the  sketch  has  lived  on in  pop  culture,  inspiring  countless
reproductions and  lending itself  to a famous,  if unproven,  narrative  about its origin.  It cuts across  denominations
and  sends  a  simple  religious  message.  The  sketch  of  unadorned  hands  clasped  in  prayer  on  a  blue-washed  paper
background was originally a study  for a painted altarpiece  commissioned  for a church in  Frankfurt. In the finished
painting, the hands belonged to an apostle gazing up at the Assumption of the Virgin Mary into heaven.

Part  of  the  appeal  of  Praying Hands  is  the  abstract  quality  of the  image.  "They've  come to  stand  for  a  kind  of
religious piety, especially in the context of ordinary, working people, because the hands are rough," says Mr. Robison.
"There are no gloves on, no rings, no jewelry, no bracelets. The cuffs of the shirt are very plain. I think that's what's
made them so famous, that they resonate with the sense of an ordinary person." The Wall Street Journal

Albrecht Durer, Praying Hands, Critique by on YouTube

The School of Athens
Fresco (1509-11)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City


The School of Athens  was painted as a part of Raphael's  commission to decorate  the rooms now known  as the Stanze
di Raffaello,  in the Apostolic  Palace  in the Vatican. The  Stanza  della  Segnatura  was the  first of the  rooms  to be
decorated,  and  The School  of  Athens,  representing  Philosophy,  was  probably  the  second  painting  to be finished
there,  after La Disputa  (Theology)  on the opposite wall, and the  Parnassus (Literature).  The picture has long been
seen as Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance.

The  School  of  Athens  is  one  of a  group  of four  main  frescoes  on  the  walls  of  the  Stanza  (those on  either  side
centrally interrupted by windows)  that depict distinct  branches of knowledge.  Each theme is  identified  above by a
separate  tondo  containing  a  majestic  female  figure  seated  in  the  clouds,   with  putti  bearing  the  phrases:  "Seek
Knowledge of Causes,"  "Divine Inspiration,"  "Knowledge of Things Divine",  "To Each What Is Due."  Accordingly, the
figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, and Law.  The traditional title
is not Raphael's.

The subject of the  "School"  is actually  "Philosophy,"  or at least ancient  Greek  philosophy,  and its overhead  tondo-
label,  "Causarum Cognitio",  tells us what kind,  as it appears to echo  Aristotle's emphasis on wisdom as  knowing why,
hence  knowing  the causes,  in Metaphysics  Book I and  Physics Book II.  Indeed,  Plato and  Aristotle  appear  to be the
central figures  in the scene.  However, all the philosophers  depicted  sought  knowledge of first causes.  Many lived
before Plato and Aristotle,  and hardly a third were Athenians.  The architecture contains Roman elements,  but the
general   semi-circular   setting   having   Plato   and   Aristotle   at   its   centre   might   be   alluding  to   Pythagoras'

Commentators have suggested that  nearly every great ancient  Greek philosopher  can be found in the painting, but
determining which  are depicted  is difficult,  since Raphael  made no  designations outside possible likenesses,  and no
contemporary   documents  explain  the   painting.   Compounding   the  problem,   Raphael  had  to  invent  a  system  of
iconography to  allude to various  figures for  whom there were no  traditional visual types.  For example,  while the
Socrates  figure  is  immediately  recognizable  from  Classical  busts,  the  alleged  Epicurus  is far removed  from  his
standard type.

The popular  idea that  the  rhetorical  gestures of  Plato  and  Aristotle  are kinds  of pointing  (to the heavens,  and
down to earth) is very likely.  But Plato's Timaeus – which is the book Raphael places in his hand – was a sophisticated
treatment   of  space,   time,  and  change,   including   the  Earth,   which   guided   mathematical  sciences   for   over  a
millennium.  Aristotle,  with his four-elements theory,  held that  all change  on Earth was  owing to motions  of the
heavens. In the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science.

It is not  certain how  much the  young Raphael  knew of ancient  philosophy,  what guidance he might  have  had from
people such as Bramante, or whether a detailed program was dictated by his sponsor, Pope Julius II. Nevertheless, the
fresco   has  even   recently   been   interpreted   as  an   exhortation  to  philosophy  and,   in   a  deeper way,  as  a visual
representation   of   the  role  of  Love  in  elevating   people   toward  upper  knowledge,  largely  in consonance  with
contemporary theories of neo-Platonic thinkers linked to Raphael. wikipedia

The School of Athens by Raphael: Description, Figures & Analysis on


The Third of May 1808
Francisco Goya
Oil on canvass (1814)
Museo del Prado, Madrid


The 1808 invasion of Spain  by Napoleon’s army  and the succeeding  French occupation,  which lasted until 1814,  had a
profound impact on Francisco Goya. He had explored themes of irrationality, folly, and corruption in earlier works
including the satiric Los Caprichos, but images he created during and after the war with France were much darker,
both emotionally and visually, than anything he had done previously.

In the gruesome  Disasters of War  series begun in 1808,  but published decades later,  Goya created  images that were
unambiguously  anti-war.  Rather than  taking sides  in these prints,  Goya focused  on how war  brings out  the basest
human  instincts.  In two  monumental  paintings  from 1814,  Goya  presented  a more  politically charged  perspective.
Created   for  a  public  audience,   the  two  paintings    -   The  Second  of  May,  1808   and  The   Third  of  May,   1808   -  
commemorate events  from the beginning of the war.  The first image represents a bloody  encounter that took place
between the  French army  and the people of Madrid who  rose up  against them.  The second  depicts the  execution of
the rebels by the French on the following day.

With The Third of May,  1808,  Goya has made  an image of actual  historical events,  but enhanced them for  maximum
dramatic effect.  The condemned  men stand  before a firing  squad on  the hill Príncipe Pío,  one of  several locations
where such executions took place.  The recognizable  architecture  of the city in the  background lends immediacy to
the scene.  But it is the  figures to the  left of the composition  that demand the viewer’s attention.  The main figure,
dressed in white,  practically glows.  Holding out his  arms in an  unmistakable reference to the crucified  Christ, he
appears as  a heroic martyr.  While the  faceless French  soldiers  on the opposite  side are rendered  almost  inhuman,
the ill-fated Spanish rebels elicit both sympathy for their suffering and respect for their sacrifice. Annenberg Learner

The painting is  structurally  and thematically  tied to traditions  of martyrdom  in Christian art,  as exemplified in
the dramatic  use of chiaroscuro,  and  the  appeal  to life  juxtaposed  with  the  inevitability of  imminent  execution.
However,  Goya's  painting  departs from  this  tradition.  Works  that  depicted  violence, such  as  those by  Jusepe  de
Ribera,  feature an  artful technique and harmonious  composition  which  anticipate the  "crown of martyrdom"  for
the victim.

In The Third  of May  the man  with  raised arms at the focal  point of the  composition has  often been  compared  to a
crucified  Christ,  and a  similar  pose is  sometimes  seen in  depictions  of Christ's  nocturnal  Agony in the  Garden of
Gethsemane.  Goya's  figure  displays  stigmata-like  marks on  his right hand,  while the  lantern at  the center  of the
canvas references a traditional attribute  of the Roman  soldiers who  arrested Christ  in the garden.  Not only is he
posed as if in crucifixion, he wears yellow and white:  the heraldic colors of the papacy. In painting, however, there is
no attempt to find transcendence, and no sense that the sacrifice of life will lead to salvation. wikipedia

Francisco Goya, The Third of May by Jameel Rawls on YouTube

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvass (1907)
Museum of Modern Art, New York


Les Demoiselles d'Avignon portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Carrer d'Avinyó (Avinyó Street)
in  Barcelona.  Each  figure  is  depicted  in  a  disconcerting  confrontational  manner  and  none  are  conventionally
feminine.  The women  appear as  slightly  menacing  and rendered  with  angular  and  disjointed  body  shapes.  Three
figures on the left exhibit facial  features in the Iberian  style of Picasso's  native Spain,  while the  two on the right
are shown with African mask-like features.  The racial primitivism evoked in these masks, according to Picasso, moved
him to "liberate an utterly original artistic style of compelling, even savage force." wikipedia

At the beginning of 1907,  Picasso began a painting,  Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, that would become arguably the most
important  of the century.  The  painting  began as a  narrative  brothel scene,  with five  prostitutes  and two men – a
medical student  and a sailor.  But the painting  metamorphosed  as he worked on it;  Picasso painted  over the clients,
leaving the five  women to  gaze out  at the  viewer,  their  faces  terrifyingly  bold  and solicitous.  There  is a strong
undercurrent of sexual anxiety.

The features of the three  women to the left were  inspired  by the prehistoric  sculpture that had interested him in
the summer;  those of  the two  to the right  were  based  on  the  masks  that  Picasso  saw  in the African  and  Oceanic
collections in the  Musée  d'Ethnographie  du Trocadéro  in Paris.  While no  specific  African or Pacific  sources  have
been identified,  Picasso  was  deeply  impressed  by what  he  saw  in these  collections,  and  they were to  be one  of his
primary  influences  for  the  next  several  years.  Art  historians  once  classified  this  phase of Picasso's  work  as  his
"Negro Period."

French imperialism  in Africa and the  Pacific was at its high point,  and gunboats  and trading steamers  brought back
ritual carvings  and masks  as curiosities.  While  the  African  carvings,  which  Picasso owned,  had a kind of  dignified
aloofness,  he,  like  other  Europeans  of his  time,  viewed  Africa  as the  symbol of savagery.  Unlike  most  Europeans,
however,  Picasso saw this savagery as a source of vitality and renewal that he wanted to incorporate for himself and
for European painting.  His interpretation  of African art,  in these  mask-like faces,  was based on this  idea of  African
savagery; his brush-strokes are hacking, impetuous, and violent.

Les Demoiselles  was so  shockingly  new  that  Gertrude  Stein  called it  "a veritable  cataclysm."  She  meant  this,  of
course, as a compliment. Not only did this painting later become a turning point duly remarked upon in every history
of modern art,  but  Picasso  felt at the  time that his  whole understanding  of painting  was revised  in the  course of
this canvas' creation. He called it his "first exorcism picture." Sparknotes

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (Picasso) from Spencer's Painting of the Week on YouTube


The Fighting Temeraire
Joseph Mallord William Turner
Oil on canvass (1839)
National Gallery, London


The  98-gun ship  HMS  Temeraire  was  one  of  the  last  ships  to  have  played a  distinguished  role in  the  Battle of
Trafalgar in 1805.  The painting depicts  HMS Temeraire  being towed by a paddle-wheel  steam tug towards its final
berth in  Rotherhithe  in south-east  London  in 1838  to be  broken  up for scrap.  The painting  hangs  in the National
Gallery,  London,  having  been  bequeathed  to  the  nation  by  the  artist  in 1851.  In 2005  it was  voted  the  nation's
favourite painting in a poll organised by BBC Radio 4.

When Turner came to paint  this picture he was at the  height of his career,  having exhibited  at the  Royal Academy
for 40 years.   He was  renowned  for  his  highly   atmospheric  paintings  in  which  he  explored  the  subjects  of  the
weather,   the  sea and  the  effects  of  light.    He  almost   certainly  did  not   witness  the  actual  towing  and  used
considerable licence  in the  painting  which  had a  symbolic  meaning  for  him.  Turner  had  been  18 years  old when
Britain  entered the  Napoleonic  Wars and  "had a strong  patriotic streak".  The Temeraire  was a very  well-known
ship from her heroic  performance at  Trafalgar,  and her  sale  by  the  Admiralty had  attracted considerable press
coverage, which was probably what brought the subject to his attention.

The composition of this painting is unusual in that the most significant object,  the old warship, is positioned well to
the left of the painting,  where it rises in stately splendour and almost ghostlike colours against a triangle of blue
sky and rising mist that throws it into relief.  The beauty of the old ship is in stark  contrast to the dirty blackened
tugboat with its tall smokestack, which scurries across the still surface of the river.

On  the opposite  side of  the  sun sets above  the estuary,  its rays  extending  into the clouds above it,  and  across the
surface of the water.  The flaming  red of the  clouds is reflected  in the river.  It exactly  repeats the colour of the
smoke which pours from the funnel of the tugboat.  The sun setting symbolises  the end of an  epoch in the history of
the British Royal Navy.

The demise of heroic  strength is the  subject of the  painting, and it has  been suggested  that the ship  stands for the
artist himself,  with an  accomplished  and  glorious  past  but  now  contemplating  his mortality.  Turner  called the
work his "darling",  which may  have been  due to its beauty,  or his identification  with the  subject. Turner displayed
the  painting  at  the  Royal  Academy   in  1839   accompanied   by  an  altered   excerpt  from   Thomas  Campbell's  poem
Ye Mariners of England, reading:

The flag which braved the battle and the breeze,
No longer owns her. wikipedia

The Mystery of The Fighting Temeraire posed by David A. Hardy from from phytonspace on YouTube.


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